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HIV virological non-suppression is highly prevalent among 18- to 24-year-old youths on antiretroviral therapy at the Kenyan coast - BMC Infectious Diseases

Background In sub-Saharan Africa, data on virologic outcomes of young people living with HIV (YLWH) enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains scarce. In this study, we describe the prevalence of ..... see more

Source : https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-022-07428-w



Conclusions: In this study, high levels of VNS were observed among YLWH and this was significantly associated with rural residency, nutritional and ART adherence problems. ART adherence counselling and nutritional support and education should be intensified in this setting targeting YLWH residing mostly in rural areas. Given the high...

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Pharmacogenetics of dolutegravir plasma exposure among Southern Africans living with HIV

AbstractBackground. Dolutegravir is a component of preferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. We characterised the pharmacogenetics of dolutegravir exposu see more

Source : https://academic.oup.com/jid/advance-article/doi/10.1093/infdis/jiac174/6580078?login=false



Conclusions: In South Africa, rs887829 and rs28899168 in the UGT1A locus were independently associated with dolutegravir AUCVAR. The novel rs28899168 association warrants replication. This study enhances understanding of dolutegravir pharmacogenetics in Africa.

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Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of a Doravirine-Based, Three-Drug Regimen in Treatment-Naïve HIV-1 Positive Adults: A Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis

Introduction: Extensive use of antiretroviral therapy has remarkably improved the survival rates of people living with HIV. Doravirine (DOR) is a newly-approved antiretroviral belonging to the class of non-nucleoside reverse ..... see more

Source : https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2022.676831/full



Conclusion: The network meta-analysis showed that DOR TDF 3TC/FTC has good efficacy and safety at 48 weeks.

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Cost-effectiveness of easy-access, risk-informed oral pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa: a modelling study - PubMed

1 Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address: [email protected] 2 Department of Population Health, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. 3 ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35489378/



Interpretation: Under the assumption that making PrEP easily accessible for all adults in sub-Saharan Africa in the context of community education leads to risk-informed use, PrEP is likely to be cost-effective in settings with prevalence of HIV viral load greater than 1000 copies per mL among all adults higher than 2%, suggesting the need...

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Pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and antiviral activity of dolutegravir dispersible tablets in infants and children with HIV-1 (IMPAACT P1093): results of an open-label, phase 1-2 trial - PubMed

Collaborators, Affiliations 1 University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address: [email protected] 2 University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. 3 Frontier Science & Technology and ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35489377/



Interpretation: In this study, the proposed once daily dosing of dolutegravir dispersible tablets provided drug exposures similar to those for adults, and was safe and well tolerated. These data support the use of dolutegravir dispersible tablets as first-line or second-line treatment for infants and children aged less than 6 years living...

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Oral human papillomavirus prevalence, persistence, and risk-factors in HIV-positive and HIV-negative adults

HIV has been shown to increase the likelihood of oral HPV infection. In this study, we evaluated the risk of oral HPV in HIV infected patients compared with HIV-negative controls. ..... see more

Source : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666679022000039?via=ihub



Conclusions: Risk of oral HPV infection and persistence was significantly higher in HIV adults with a history of poorly controlled HIV, which may put them at increased risk of HPV-associated cancer.

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Exposure of human immune cells, to the antiretrovirals efavirenz and lopinavir, leads to lower glucose uptake and altered bioenergetic cell profiles through interactions with SLC2A1 - PubMed

SLC2A1 mediates glucose cellular uptake; key to appropriate immune function. Our previous work has shown efavirenz and lopinavir exposure inhibits T cell and macrophage responses, to known agonists, likely via ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35461087/



Conclusion: Our data suggest a role for efavirenz and lopinavir in the alteration of glucose accumulation with subsequent alteration of bioenergetic profiles, supporting our hypothesis for their inhibitory effect on immune cell activation. Clarification of the implications of this data, for in vivo immunological responses, is now warranted...

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Mean generation function model in AIDS epidemic estimation - PubMed

doi: 10.1186/s12911-022-01825-6. 1 Department of Health Management, Faculty of Health Service, Second Military Medical University, Naval Medical University, No. 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China. 2 Department ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35429984/



Conclusion: The mean birth function model was an effective method to monitor and predict the changing trend of AIDS incidence and mortality in China.

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A comprehensive analysis of excess depressive disorder in women and men living with HIV in France compared to the general population - Scientific Reports

We aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive disorder in people living with HIV (PLWH) and evaluate its association with non-HIV-specific and HIV-specific factors in PLWH and in PLWH compared ..... see more

Source : https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-10263-3



Conclusion: Excess depressive disorder remains a major concern in PLWH. Our findings reaffirm the importance of regular screening. Tackling social inequalities and HIV-stigma should be prioritized to ensure that PLWH achieve good mental as well as physical health outcomes.



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Forgiveness of INSTI-Containing Regimens at Drug Concentrations Simulating Variable Adherence In Vitro - PubMed

The integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimens bictegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF), dolutegravir (DTG)+FTC/TAF, DTG/lamivudine (3TC), and DTG/rilpivirine (RPV) are all approved for treatment of HIV-infected patients, with various limitations. Here, time ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35389236/



Conclusion/Relevance: Overall, under high adherence conditions, no in vitro VB or resistance development occurred with these INSTI-based regimens. However, when multiple missed doses were simulated in vitro, BIC FTC TAF had the highest forgiveness and barrier to resistance of all tested regimens. Compared to DTG 3TC and DTG FTC TAF, DTG RPV...

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Dynamic Changes in Breast Milk Microbiome in the Early Postpartum Period of Kenyan Women Living with HIV Are Influenced by Antibiotics but Not Antiretrovirals - PubMed

Shared bacteria between maternal breast milk and infant stool, infers that transfer of maternal breast milk microbiota through breastfeeding seeds the establishment of the infant gut microbiome. Whether combination antiretroviral ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35384692/



Importance: Breastfeeding has important benefits for long-term infant health, particularly in establishing and shaping the infant gut microbiome. However, the impact of combination antiretroviral therapy exposure and antibiotics on the breast milk microbiome in women living with HIV is not known. Here, in a longitudinal retrospective study of...

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Host transcriptomic signatures of tuberculosis can predict immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV patients - PubMed

The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) can be a complication of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in patients with advanced HIV, but its pathogenesis is uncertain. In tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries, IRIS ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35398886/



Conclusion: Parsimonious whole blood transcriptomic signatures for TB showed potential to predict and diagnose IRIS in HIV children and adults.

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First report of computational protein-ligand docking to evaluate susceptibility to HIV integrase inhibitors in HIV-infected Iranian patients - PubMed

As the first bioinformatic report on HIV-integrase from Iran, this study indicates that EVG and RAL are the optimal INTIs in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Iranian patients. Some conserved ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35368742/



Conclusion: As the first bioinformatic report on HIV-integrase from Iran, this study indicates that EVG and RAL are the optimal INTIs in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Iranian patients. Some conserved motifs and specific amino acids in INT-protein binding sites have characterized that mutation(s) in them may disrupt INT-drugs...

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Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis in an antiretroviral therapy-naïve, HIV-positive patient - PubMed

Pneumocystis jirovecii is a common opportunistic fungal pathogen that commonly affects immunocompromised individuals and can cause P. jirovecii pneumonia. Extrapulmonary P. jirovecii infections are extremely rare. Herein, we present a ..... see more

Source : https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35398297/



Conclusion: After starting ART, the patient's clinical condition improved and the abscesses gradually reduced. TMP-SMX is commonly used to treat EPC; however, there is no standard method of treatment. ART may become the key to EPC treatment in individuals with HIV infection.

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COVID-19 vaccination and HIV-1 acquisition

Susan P Buchbinder and colleagues1 express concern that COVID-19 vaccines utilising replication-defective adenovirus vectors of human serotype 5 (HAdV-5) might increase the risk of HIV-1 acquisition. Such concern has prompted ..... see more

Source : https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(22)00332-4/fulltext



Conclusion: Due vigilance and monitoring of adverse events, including HIV-1 infection rates, are absolutely crucial in the pandemic response and the roll-out of vaccines, but still, we would urge global health authorities to license and distribute any efficacious and safe vaccines that are available especially while access to COVID-19...